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Positive Psychology Questionnaires

 

If you would like to recommend a questionnaire for this Web page, e-mail information in the format below to Peter Schulman.

 

This page has information about the following questionnaires, some of which can be downloaded from this page. This list is not intended to be an endorsement of these questionnaires:

 

Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)

Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II)

Gratitude Questionnaire - 6 (GQ-6)

Hope Scale (HS)

Inspiration Scale (IS)

Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ)

Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)

Older Adults' Attributional Style Questionnaire (OAASQ)

Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS)

Psychological Well-Being Scales

Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI)

Satisfaction with Life Scale

Silver Lining Questionnaire (SLQ)

State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI)

Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)

Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM)

VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS)

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
      
Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)
      Martin E. P. Seligman, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The ASQ is a self-report instrument that yields scores for explanatory style for bad events and for good events using three causal dimensions: internal versus external, stable versus unstable, and global versus specific causes. The ASQ presents 12 hypothetical events, half good and half bad, and the test-taker is asked to write down the one major cause of each event and then rate the cause along a 7-point continuum for each of the three causal dimensions. There is evidence that the ASQ is a predictor of depression, physical health, and achievement in various domains (in academics, work, and sports). The ASQ takes an average of about 20 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Buchanan, G. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.). (1995). Explanatory Style. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

2. Peterson, C. (1988). Explanatory style as a risk factor for illness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 117-130.

3. Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. T., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287-300.

4. Seligman, M.E.P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., and Thornton, K.M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science, 1, 143-146.

5. Seligman, M.E.P. and Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838.

6. Sweeney, P.D., Anderson, K, & Bailey, S. (1986). Attributional style in depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 974-991.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Dr. Martin Seligman's administrative assistant: SeligmanInfo@psych.upenn.edu

INFORMATION ON THE WEB:
       http://www.positivepsychology.org/testproc.htm

 

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II)
       Todd B. Kashdan, Ph.D., Matt Gallagher, Ph.D. Paul Silvia, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The CEI-II is a self-report instrument assessing individual differences in the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging experiences and information. The CEI-II is a 10-item scale with two factors: the motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; five items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; five items).. The first factor, Exploration, refers to appetitive strivings for novel and challenging information and experiences. The second factor, Absorption, refers to the propensity to be deeply engaged in activities. Respondents rate items using a 7-point Likert-type scale. The CEI-II has good internal reliability, and shows moderately large positive relationships with intrinsic motivation, reward sensitivity, openness to experience, and subjective vitality. Moreover, the CEI-II has shown incremental validity over and above the overlapping constructs of positive affect and reward sensitivity. The CEI-II takes less than 2 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit. A state version of the CEI-II has also been validated, demonstrating sensitivity to change.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Kashdan, T.B., Gallagher, M.W., Silvia, P.J., Winterstein, B.P., Breen, W.E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M.F. (2009). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and initial psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.

2. Kashdan, T.B., McKnight, P.E., Fincham, F.D., & Rose, P. (2011). When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations. Journal of Personality, 79, 1369-1401.

3. Kashdan, T.B., Dewall, C.N., Pond, R.S., Silvia, P.J., Lambert, N.M., Fincham, F.D., Savostyanova, A.A., & Keller, P.S. (in press). Curiosity protects against interpersonal aggression: Cross-sectional, daily process, and behavioral evidence. Journal of Personality.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Todd B. Kashdan, Ph.D.: tkashdan@gmu.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: http://psychfaculty.gmu.edu/kashdan/CEI-II.pdf
       The author grants permission to use this questionnaire for any research purpose.

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHORS:
       Gratitude Questionnaire - 6 (GQ-6)
       Michael E. McCullough, Ph.D., Robert A. Emmons, Ph.D., Jo-Ann Tsang, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The GQ-6 is a short, self-report measure of the disposition to experience gratitude. Participants answer 6 items on a 1 to 7 scale (1 = "strongly disagree", 7 = "strongly agree"). Two items are reverse-scored to inhibit response bias. The GQ-6 has good internal reliability, with alphas between .82 and .87, and there is evidence that the GQ-6 is positively related to optimism, life satisfaction, hope, spirituality and religiousness, forgiveness, empathy and prosocial behavior, and negatively related to depression, anxiety, materialism and envy. The GQ-6 takes less than 5 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit.

KEY REFERENCES:

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The Grateful Disposition: A conceptual and Empirical Topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Dr. Michael E. McCullough: mikem@mail.smu.edu
       Dr. Robert A. Emmons: raemmons@ucdavis.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Gratitude Questionnaire

 

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHORS:
       Adult Hope Scale (AHS)
       C. R. Snyder, University of Kansas

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The adult hope scale (AHS) measures Snyder's cognitive model of hope which defines hope as "a positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal-directed energy), and (b) pathways (planning to meet goals)" (Snyder, Irving, & Anderson, 1991, p. 287). The adult hope scale contains 12 items. Four items measure pathways thinking, four items measure agency thinking, and four items are fillers. Participants respond to each item using a 8-point scale ranging from definitely false to definitely true and the scale takes only a few minutes to complete. See Snyder (2002) for a review of hope theory and research.

KEY REFERENCES:

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al.(1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.
Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. New York: Free Press.
Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Adult Hope Scale

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHORS:
       Inspiration Scale (IS)
       Todd M. Thrash and Andrew J. Elliot


WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The IS is a brief, face-valid measure of inspiration, a motivational resource that has been under-appreciated by psychologists. The measure consists of 4-item frequency and intensity subscales that may be combined into an overall inspiration scale. The IS has strong psychometric properties: it demonstrates a consistent two-factor structure, internal consistency, temporal stability, and measurement invariance across time and across populations. The IS also demonstrates strong evidence of construct validity and empirical utility: its nomological network includes openness to experience, intrinsic motivation, BAS, and creativity, as well as the holding of U.S. patents; the frequency and intensity subscales predict their corresponding dimensions in daily experience; and the scale predicts a range of positive consequences (openness to experience, work-mastery motivation, creativity, perceived competence, and self-determination) while controlling trait measures of these outcomes and trait positive affect. The IS takes a minute or two to complete.

KEY REFERENCES:

Thrash, T. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 871-889.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Todd M.Thrash: thrash@psych.rochester.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Inspiration Scale

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHORS:
       Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ)
       Michael F. Steger, Patricia Frazier, Shigehiro Oishi, and Matthew Kaler

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The Meaning in Life Questionnaire assesses two dimensions of meaning in life using 10 items rated on a seven-point scale from “Absolutely True” to “Absolutely Untrue.” The Presence of Meaning subscale measures how full respondents feel their lives are of meaning. The Search for Meaning subscale measures how engaged and motivated respondents are in efforts to find meaning or deepen their understanding of meaning in their lives. The MLQ has good reliability, test-retest stability, stable factor structure, and convergence among informants. Presence is positively related to well-being, intrinsic religiosity, extraversion and agreeableness, and negatively related to anxiety and depression. Search is positively related to religious quest, rumination, past-negative and present-fatalistic time perspectives, negative affect, depression, and neuroticism, and negatively related to future time perspective, close-mindedness (dogmatism), and well-being. Presence relates as expected with personal growth self-appraisals, and altruistic and spiritual behaviors as assessed through daily diaries. The MLQ takes about 5 minutes to complete.

KEY REFERENCES:

Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (in press). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology.

Steger, M. F., & Frazier, P. (in press). Meaning in life: One link in the chain from religion to well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       michael_f_steger@yahoo.com

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Meaning in Life Questionnaire

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)

       Kirk Warren Brown, Ph.D. & Richard M. Ryan, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The MAAS is a 15-item scale designed to assess a core characteristic of dispositional mindfulness, namely, open or receptive awareness of and attention to what is taking place in the present. The scale shows strong psychometric properties and has been validated with college, community, and cancer patient samples. Correlational, quasi-experimental, and laboratory studies have shown that the MAAS taps a unique quality of consciousness that is related to, and predictive of, a variety of self-regulation and well-being constructs. The measure takes 10 minutes or less to complete.

KEY REFERENCE:

Brown, K.W. & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Kirk Warren Brown at kirk@scp.rochester.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Mindful Attention Awareness Scale

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Older Adults' Attributional Style Questionnaire (OAASQ)
       Derek M. Isaacowitz, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The OAASQ is a version of the ASQ modified to be appropriate to the lives of older adults. It is identical in form to the ASQ but contains certain content differences. First, the vignettes from the affiliation domain have been changed slightly to be more appropriate to older populations. Second, the achievement vignettes from the ASQ have been replaced on the OAASQ with vignettes from the health/cognitive domain. Explanatory style in these two domains may predict depression and affect in older individuals, though the relations appear more complex than those found in young adults; in particular, some extremely optimistic older adults may be at higher risk for increases in depressive symptoms than are their more pessimistic peers, especially in the context of several negative life events happening over a short period.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Isaacowitz, D.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (in press). Cognitive style predictors of affect change in older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development.

2. Isaacowitz, D.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (2001). Is pessimistic explanatory style a risk factor for depressive mood among community-dwelling older adults? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 255-272.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Derek Isaacowitz: dmi@brandeis.edu

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
      
Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS)
      
Christine Robitschek, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The PGIS is a self-report instrument that yields a single scale score for personal growth initiative. Personal growth initiative is a person's active and intentional involvement in changing and developing as a person. The PGIS consists of nine items that are rated on a Likert scale from 1 = Strongly Disagree to 6 = Strongly Agree. Item scores are summed to obtain a total PGI score. There is evidence that the PGIS is strongly positively related to psychological well-being and negatively related to psychological distress. Reliability and validity evidence has been strong. The PGIS takes about 5 minutes to complete, and there is no time limit.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Bartley, D. F., & Robitschek, C. (2000). Career exploration: A multivariate analysis of predictors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 63-81.

2. Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30, 183-198.

3. Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 31, 197-210.

4. Robitschek, C., & Cook, S. W. (1999). The influence of personal growth initiative and coping styles on career exploration and vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 127-141.

5. Robitschek, C., & Kashubeck, S. (1999). A structural model of parental alcoholism, family functioning, and psychological health: The mediating effects of hardiness and personal growth orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 159-172.

6. Whittaker, A. E., & Robitschek, C. (2001). Multidimensional family functioning as predictors of personal growth initiative. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 420-427.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Christine Robitschek, Ph.D.: chris.robitschek@ttu.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Personal Growth Initiative Scale

QUESTIONNAIRE AND AUTHOR:
       Psychological Well-Being Scales
       Carol Ryff, University of Wisconsin Madison

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       Carol Ryff has conceptualized psychological well-being as consisting of 6 dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance. She has designed self-report scales to assess individual's well-being at a particular moment in time within each of these 6 dimensions. Three- to 12- item per scale validated versions exist of the measure for use in survey research or other data collection. Individuals respond to various statements and indicate on a 6-point Likert scale how true each statement is of them. Higher scores on each on scale indicate greater well-being on that dimension.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 1-28.

2. Ryff, C.D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 99-104.

3. Ryff, C.D., & Keyes, C.L.M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Carol Ryff: cryff@facstaff.wisc.edu

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI)
       Michael Frisch, Baylor University

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The QOLI assesses an individual's quality of life through self-report of the importance they attach to each of 16 life domains (on a 3-point rating scale) as well as their current satisfaction with each domain (on a 6-point rating scale). Importance scores are multiplied by satisfaction scores for each domain, and then these scores are summed to determine an overall current quality of life for each individual. This measure is very quick to complete, and has been normed in a community sample of adults. It has also been used to track changes in individuals over the course of therapy. Higher scores indicate a higher overall quality of life.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Frisch, M.B. (1992). Use of the Quality of Life Inventory in problem assessment and treatment planning for cognitive therapy of depression. In A. Freeman & F.M. Dattilio (Eds). Comprehensive Casebook of Cognitive Therapy (pp. 27-52). New York: Plenum.

2. Frisch, M.B., Cornell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P.J. (1992). Clinical validation of the Quality of Life Inventory: A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 92-101.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Michael Frisch: Michael_Frisch@baylor.edu

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Satisfaction with Life Scale
       Ed Diener, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The Satisfaction with Life Scale was developed to assess satisfaction with people's lives as a whole. The scale does not assess satisfaction with specific life domains, such as health or finances, but allows subjects to integrate and weigh these domains in whatever way they choose. It takes only a few minutes to complete.

KEY REFERENCE:

Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larson, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.

Pavot, W. & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164-172.

Pavot, W. G., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale:

Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149-161.

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Satisfaction with Life Scale

 

QUESTIONNAIRE AND AUTHORS
       The Silver Lining Questionnaire
       Samantha C. Sodergren and Michael E. Hyland

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES
       The Silver Lining Questionnaire measures the extent to which people believe their illness has had a positive benefit despite the negative consequences of being ill. Research suggests that this positive interpretation is not due to a form of self-delusion but instead reflects personal growth and that it can be enhanced by the context. Its role in recovery from illness is complex.

KEY REFERENCES

1. Sodergren, S. C. & Hyland, M. E. (1997). Qualitative phase in the development of the Silver Lining Questionnaire. Quality of Life Research, 6, (7-8), 365.

2. Sodergren, S. C., & Hyland, M. E. (2000). What are the positive consequences of illness? Psychology and Health, 15, 85-97.

3. Sodergren, S. C., Hyland, M. E., Singh, S. J., & Sewell, L. (2002). The effect of rehabilitation on positive interpretations of illness. Psychology and Health; 17, 753-760.

4. Sodergren, S. C., Hyland, M. E., Crawford, A., Partridge, M. R. (2004). Positivitiy in illness: self-delusion or existential growth? British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 163-174.

5. Hyland, M. E., Sodergren, S. C., & Lewith, G. T. (in press). The role of positivity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Journal of Health Psychology.

EMAIL CONTACT:

       Michael E. Hyland: michael.hyland@plymouth.ac.uk
       http://www.psyresearch.psy.plymouth.ac.uk/research/mhyland/

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
      Click here: Silver Lining Questionnaire (pdf version) or Silver Lining Questionnaire (MS Word version)

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI)
      Willibald Ruch, Gabriele Kohler, & Christoph van Thriel

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI) is a self-report instrument measuring the three concepts of cheerfulness, seriousness, and bad mood as both states (STCI-S) and traits (STCI-T). They are 20 and 10 items per scale in the STCI-T and STCI-S, respectively, and both parts utilize a 4-point answer format (strongly disagree to strongly agree).

The concepts are considered to assess the temperamental basis of humor and the scales have been validated in a variety of studies. The trait part is reliable and state part is sensitive to change. The traits are disposition for the activation of the homologous states and it has been demonstrated that trait cheerfulness is not only predictor for getting in a cheerful mood more easily (threshold in), experience that state more strongly, and remain in that state longer, even under adverse circumstances (i.e., of the phenomenon of "keeping" or "losing one's humor"). The state and state versions of the inventory take approximately 10 and 5 minutes to complete, respectively. More at:
http://www.psychologie.uzh.ch/perspsy/STCI/STCI.php

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Ruch, W., Kohler, G. & van Thriel (1996). Assessing the "humorous temperament": Construction of the facet and standard trait forms of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory - STCI. In W. Ruch (Ed.), Measurement of the sense of humor [special issue]. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 303-339.

2. Ruch, W., Kohler, G. & van Thriel (1997). To be in good or bad humor: Construction of the state form of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory - STCI. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 477-491.

3. Ruch, W. & Kohler, G. (1998). A temperament approach to humor. In: W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic. (Humor Research Series, vol. 3). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 203-230.

4. Ruch, W. & Carrell, A. (1998). Trait cheerfulness and the sense of humor. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 551-558.

5. Ruch, W. (1997). State and trait cheerfulness and the induction of exhilaration. European Psychologist, 2, 328-341.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Willibald Ruch, Ph.D.: willibald.ruch@bluewin.ch


QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)
      Sonja Lyubomirsky, Ph.D.
 

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The SHS is a 4-item scale of global subjective happiness. Two items ask respondents to characterize themselves using both absolute ratings and ratings relative to peers, whereas the other two items offer brief descriptions of happy and unhappy individuals and ask respondents the extent to which each characterization describes them. The SHS has been validated in 14 studies with a total of 2,732 participants. Data has been collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, And from older adults, as well as from students and community adults in Moscow, Russia. Results have indicated that the SHS has high internal consistency, which has been found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations have suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity have confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.

2. Lyubomirsky, S., & Ross, L. (1997). Hedonic consequences of social comparison: A contrast of happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1141-1157.

3. Lyubomirsky, S., & Ross, L. (1999). Changes in attractiveness of elected, rejected, and precluded alternatives: A comparison of happy and unhappy individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 988-1007.

4. Lyubomirsky, S., & Tucker, K. L. (1998). Implications of individual differences in subjective happiness for perceiving, interpreting, and thinking about life events. Motivation and Emotion, 22, 155-186.

5. Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others?: The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56, 239-249.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Sonja Lyubomirsky: sonja@citrus.ucr.edu

TO DOWNLOAD THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
       Click here: Subjective Happiness Scale

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:
       Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM)
      Michael E. McCullough, K. Chris Rachal, Steven J. Sandage, Everett L. Worthington, Jr., Susan Wade
Brown, & Terry L. Hight

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The TRIM is a self-report instrument that assesses the motivations assumed to underlie forgiving: Avoidance and Revenge. Responses to 12 statements referring to a transgression recipient's current thoughts and feelings about the transgressor are scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Recently, a six-item subscale to reflect benevolent motivations toward the transgressor has been under development (contact the first author for details). The TRIM subscales not only correlate with a variety of relationship, offense, and social-cognitive variables, they have also demonstrated strong relationships to a single-item measure of forgiveness. The inventory takes approximately 5 minutes to complete.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K.C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E. L., Brown, Susan W., & Hight, T. L.(1998). Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships: II. Theoretical Elaboration and Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603.

2. McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., & Rachal, K. C. (2000). What We Know (and Need to Know) about Assessing Forgiveness Constructs. In McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K.I., & Carl E. Thoresen (Eds.), Forgiveness: Theory, Research, and Practice (pp.65-88). New York: Guilford Publications,Inc.

3. McCullough, M. E., Bellah, C.G., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Johnson, J. L. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships With Forgiveness, Rumination, Well-Being, and the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601-610.

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Michael E. McCullough, Ph.D.: mikem@mail.smu.edu

QUESTIONNAIRE NAME AND AUTHOR:

VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS), © 2005 Values in Action Institute
Christopher Peterson, Ph.D. and Martin E. P. Seligman, Ph.D.

WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURES:
       The Values in Action (VIA) Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) is a 240-item face-valid self-report questionnaire intended for use with adults in the contemporary United States. The measure uses 5-point Likert-style items to measure the degree to which respondents endorse items reflecting the 24 strengths of character that comprise the VIA Classification (Peterson & Seligman, in preparation). The VIA-IS takes about 25 minutes to complete, although there is no time limit.

KEY REFERENCES:

1. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (in preparation). The VIA classification of strengths. Cincinnati, OH: Values in Action Institute.

2. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P, (2001). VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS).

E-MAIL CONTACT INFORMATION:
       Christopher Peterson: chrispet@umich.edu

WEBSITE TO TAKE VIA & GET FEEDBACK ON STRENGTHS:http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/

 

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